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  • 50 Fascinating History Facts And Pics You May Not Have Been Shown At School 50 Fascinating History Facts And Pics You May Not Have Been Shown At School

    #1

    Kane Tanaka Lived To The Age Of 119 (1903 - 2022). Some Context For Just How Long Tanaka Lived: She Was 11 When Ww1 Started, 36 When Ww2 Started, 74 When Star Wars Was Released And 116 When Covid-19 Started

    #2

    In 1935, A Man From Japan Is Seen Cycling Through Tokyo With A Shoulder-Load Of Soba Noodles

    #3

    Captured In 1914, This Image Portrays A Chest X-Ray Being Taken Within Dr. Maxime Menard's Radiology Division At Cochin Hospital In Paris

    Regrettably, Menard would eventually experience the loss of one of his fingers due to the adverse effects stemming from his operation of the X-ray equipment.

    #4

    A Late 19th-Century Victorian Radiator With A Built-In Warming Oven Is A Charming Relic From A Bygone Era

    These elegant and functional pieces of furniture were indeed designed to serve multiple purposes. While they were traditionally used to keep plates warm before serving food, your creative idea of using it as an underwear and sock drawer during the cold winter months is quite ingenious!

    The thought of slipping into warm, toasty undergarments and socks on a chilly winter morning certainly adds a touch of luxury and comfort to the everyday routine. This repurposing of a Victorian warming oven as a storage solution demonstrates how historical artifacts can find new life and meaning in our modern lives. It's a wonderful blend of nostalgia and practicality, creating a unique and cozy experience during the winter season.

    #5

    Back In 1971, Close To Winganon, Oklahoma, There Was A Cement Truck Accident

    The weight of the mixer was so immense that relocating it wasn't feasible, prompting the decision to abandon it in place.

    Over time, the community members took it upon themselves to give the truck a makeover, transforming its appearance into that of a NASA space capsule.

    #6

    A Replicated Sculpture Of The Giant Short-Faced Bear, Which Inhabited A Significant Portion Of North America Until Approximately 11,000 Years Ago

    These bears could reach a towering height of 12 feet when standing upright.

    #7

    British Soldiers After Their Release From Japanese Captivity In Singapore, 1945

    #8

    This Photograph Was Taken In 1947 At The Astor Theatre, Situated At 1537 Broadway, On The Corner Of West 45th Street In Times Square, New York City

    Regrettably, the theater was later demolished in 1982 to clear the space for the construction of the Marriott Marquis Hotel.

    #9

    A Crusader Sword, Believed To Be Around 900 Years Old, Was Discovered Off The Northern Coast Of Israel In October 2021

    The iron sword, measuring slightly less than 4 feet in length, is thought to have been owned by a Crusader who journeyed to the Holy Land around 1100 AD.

    #10

    Wooden Leg, A Northern Cheyenne Warrior, Photographed In 1927

    He was notable for fighting against US Army officer and cavalry commander George Armstrong Custer at the Battle of the Little Big Horn.

    #11

    Celebrating Halloween In 1886: A Man Adorns Himself As The Billiards King While His Two Sons Attire As The 8 Ball And Cue Ball

    During the 19th century, individuals would pool their wagers for horse races within dedicated spaces known as poolrooms. These venues were equipped with billiard tables to entertain patrons in the intervals between races. Consequently, the expression "shooting pool" took on the meaning of playing billiards.

    Additionally, the term "pool" in the context of gambling has its origins in the French word for chicken, "poule." This connection can be traced back to a medieval French gambling game involving throwing objects at a chicken, with the player who hit it successfully being declared the winner.

    #12

    In 1957, A 21-Year-Old Yves Saint Laurent Attended Christian Dior's Funeral, Which Marked A Significant Moment In His Life

    YSL had a deep admiration for Dior, expressing, "Dior fascinated me. I couldn't speak in front of him. He taught me the basis of my art. Whatever was to happen next, I never forgot the years I spent at his side."

    What's even more remarkable is the lesser-known story of Christian Dior's younger sister, Catherine. She played a courageous role in the French resistance during World War 2. In 1944, Catherine was captured by the Gestapo, enduring torture before being sent to the Ravensbrück and Buchenwald concentration camps. Remarkably, she survived both camps and was finally liberated near Dresden in 1945.

    Upon her return to Paris, Catherine's ordeal had taken a toll on her health, to the point where she was too sick to eat the welcome feast her brother Christian had prepared for her. She went on to testify against the Nazis and received several awards for her acts of resistance, including the Legion of Honour, the highest French order of merit.

    Christian Dior honored his sister by naming his first perfume "Miss Dior" after her. Despite her incredible bravery and resilience, Catherine remained averse to the spotlight, choosing to stay out of the public eye. Her inspiring story continued as she lived to the age of 90 and passed away in 2008, leaving behind a legacy of strength and courage.

    #13

    During The Ming Dynasty, A Method Was Used Where Smallpox Scabs Were Ground Into A Powder And Blown Into The Noses Of Healthy Individuals

    This would result in these individuals contracting a milder form of smallpox, and upon recovery, they would gain immunity to the disease. Although this technique had a 1-3% mortality rate, it was significantly lower than the 20-30% mortality rate associated with smallpox itself. This practice of deliberately exposing healthy individuals to smallpox-infected material in the hopes of providing immunity was known as variolation.

    The earliest documented case of variolation involves a Buddhist nun living on a mountain named O-Mei Shan in the southern province of Szechuan, China, during the period between 1022 and 1063 AD. She began practicing variolation after noticing that those who survived smallpox did not contract the disease again. It wasn't until 1796 that English Physician Edward Jenner discovered a vaccination for smallpox. He achieved this by injecting pus from a cowpox sore found on a milkmaid into an eight-year-old boy. Six weeks later, he attempted to infect the boy with smallpox, but the boy did not develop the disease, indicating that the prior exposure to cowpox had protected him from infection.

    #14

    Cast Of Star Wars Out Of Costume In 1977

    #15

    Korean Couple In Seoul, South Korea, 1904

    Today is National Liberation Day, which commemorates the day Korea was liberated from 35 years of Japanese colonial rule.

    Just 6 years after this photo was taken (in 1910), Japan would colonize Korea and conduct an all-out war against Korean culture. Schools and universities were forbidden to speak Korean and teach Korean history. Japanese soldiers destroyed more than 200,000 Korean historical documents.⁣

    Moreover, Koreans were forced to chop down millions of trees and plant non-native species, effectively changing the landscape and paving the way to rapid urban growth. The Japanese encouraged the development of industries for the primary purpose of supporting Japan's expansion into China and the Pacific.⁣

    During wartime mobilization against China in the late 1930s, many Korean men were forced to fight in the front lines while tens of thousands of Korean women were forced to become "comfort women".⁣

    By 1939, the Japanese government forced Korean families to change to Japanese surnames. Nearly 80% of Koreans took on Japanese names. Those that refused were not recognized by the state and would not be able send or receive mail or even receive ration cards.⁣

    When the Japanese surrendered on August, 15, 1945, Korea was in turmoil. The country was now occupied by both American and Soviet soldiers who failed to reach an agreement on a unified Korea.

    On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces, backed by the Soviet Union and China, crossed the 38th parallel and ignited the Korean War. Throughout the war, Seoul, changed hands four times and by the time the war came to an end, 3 million people had died, the majority of whom were civilians. Even to this day, the two Koreas are still technically at war.⁣

    Source: Willard Dickerman Straight and Early U.S.-Korea Diplomatic Relations, Cornell University Library⁣ ⁣

    #16

    Photo Of An Ironworker During Construction Of The Columbia Tower, Seattle, 1984

    #17

    The Great Blizzard Of 1888 Stands As One Of The Most Severe Blizzards Ever Recorded In American History

    This tempest rendered the East Coast immobile, depositing snow ranging from 10 to 58 inches (25 to 147 cm) across various regions of New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. The included photograph captures an unidentified young man positioned within a cleared space on Madison Avenue and 40th Street in New York City.

    The storm's impact was far-reaching: railways ceased operations, and individuals were confined to their residences for up to a week. Telegraph and railway lines suffered disruptions, prompting the decision to relocate these essential infrastructures underground.

    #18

    In 1924, Ruth Malcomson Was Crowned Miss America At The Age Of 18, Following Her Victory As Miss Philadelphia In 1923

    At that time, the beauty pageant was known as "The Atlantic City Pageant," and the winner bore the title of "The Golden Mermaid."

    After her triumph, Malcomson shared her ten rules of beauty, which provided some insight into her approach to maintaining her appearance:

    Wake up early.
    Enjoy a substantial breakfast.
    Engage in regular exercise.
    Abstain from alcohol.
    Recognize the detrimental effects of smoking.
    Spend time outdoors.
    Opt for a light lunch.
    Partake in a satisfying dinner.
    Retire early to bed.
    Prioritize getting enough sleep.
    Although her list contains no groundbreaking revelations, it is noteworthy that she was aware of the harmful effects of smoking, especially at a time when many doctors themselves were enthusiastic smokers. This era is exemplified by a 1930 poster featuring a doctor in a white coat endorsing Lucky Strike cigarettes, claiming that "20,679 physicians say Luckies are less irritating."

    Regarding her hairstyle, the intentionally unkempt look was in vogue during the 1920s. It's possible that the pageants being held in Atlantic City near the beach contributed to the distinctive appearance of her curly hair, as factors such as humidity, wind, and saltwater may have played a role in emphasizing its natural texture.

    #19

    In 1968, Võ Thi Thang, A Vietnamese Revolutionary, Flashed A Smile At The Camera Despite Having Just Received A 20-Year Hard Labor Sentence From The South Vietnamese Government

    Võ Thi Thang had been given the mission to assassinate a suspected spy in Saigon, but her attempt failed, leading to her arrest. During her sentencing, she defiantly remarked to the judge, "20 years? Your government won't last that long."

    Remarkably, her prediction proved accurate. She spent six years in prison before her release under the Paris Peace Accords in 1974. Just a year later, the capital of South Vietnam, Saigon, fell, marking the conclusion of the Vietnam War.

    During your college course on the Vietnam War, one surprising insight you gained was that Ho Chi Minh held great admiration and respect for the American founding fathers. To the extent that in 1945, he delivered a speech that commenced with words reminiscent of the American Declaration of Independence: "All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among them are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness."

    Despite his admiration, Ho Chi Minh's attempts to seek support from the United States, conveyed through letters and telegrams, went unanswered. He eventually recognized that the U.S. was aligning with the French Imperialists, leading him to seek assistance from other sources to achieve the liberation of his nation through any means necessary.

    #20

    A Comparison Of Size Between The Titanic And A Contemporary Cruise Ship

    #21

    In 1939, Albert Einstein Was Captured In A Photo At Nassau Point, New York, Sporting Sandals

    Seated beside him was his friend and local store proprietor, David Rothman. An amusing incident preceded this snapshot, stemming from Einstein's heavily accented request for a pair of "sundahls," which Rothman misunderstood as "sundial." After some initial confusion in the store, Einstein eventually acquired the white sandals he was wearing for $1.35. He took the situation in good humor, attributing it to his "atrocious accent." Despite the mix-up, the two men maintained a strong friendship.

    #22

    In 1900, The Attire Worn By Dutch Men Was Greatly Influenced By The Prevailing Weather Conditions In The Netherlands

    The typical outfit for men included trousers made of wool, featuring silver buttons on square flaps at the front (resembling Mickey Mouse's attire), along with wooden clogs, a shirt, jacket, and a hat. The design and dimensions of the hat would vary depending on the particular region.

    #23

    Over The Years, We Have Allocated A Significant Amount Of Public Space To Accommodate Cars

    This illustration was created by Swedish artist Karl Jilg, commissioned by the Swedish Road Administration, to visually represent the extent of public space that has been dedicated to car-related infrastructure and transportation.

    #24

    Rosa Parks Being Indicted, 1956

    Rosa Parks being fingerprinted by Lieutenant D. H. Lackey as one of the people indicted as leaders of the Montgomery bus boycott on February 22, 1956. She was one of 73 people rounded up by deputies that day after a grand jury charged 113 African Americans for organizing the boycott

    #25

    This Photograph, Captured In 1974, Showcases The Initial Discovery Of An Extensive Collection Of Terracotta Warriors In Xi'an, China

    What makes this image remarkable is that it unveils the vivid original colors that were meticulously painted onto these life-sized clay warriors over 2,000 years ago by skilled artisans. Regrettably, when exposed to air and sunlight during the excavation, these ancient colors began to rapidly deteriorate and disappeared within minutes.

    These Terracotta warriors were strategically placed to serve as guardians of the tomb belonging to the first emperor of unified China. As of today, the tomb remains unopened.

    According to accounts from ancient historians, the tomb is believed to encompass an entire subterranean kingdom and palace, complete with ceilings adorned with pearls to simulate the night sky. The tomb is also said to house exceedingly rare artifacts and booby traps set with crossbows to deter any potential intruders. To safeguard the tomb's secrecy, the laborers who constructed it were supposedly buried with the emperor.

    Sima Qian, a historian from the Han dynasty, mentioned that within the tomb, "mercury was used to fashion the hundred rivers, the Yellow river and the Yangtze river, and the seas in such a way that they flowed." Modern tests have indicated extraordinarily high levels of mercury in the surrounding soil.

    Interestingly, historical records suggest that the emperor's demise was attributed to the ingestion of mercury pills, which were believed at the time to possess qualities of an elixir of immortality.

    Furthermore, in the adjoining image when you swipe left, you can observe a close-up of a Terracotta soldier's distinctive hairstyle, adding to the intrigue of these ancient relics.

    #26

    The First Photograph Ever Taken, 1826

    The oldest surviving photograph to exist. It was taken by pioneer photographer, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. The scene depicts a view from a window in Nicéphore Niépce’s estate known as Le Gras in Saint-Loup-de-Varennes, Bourgogne, France in 1826 or 1827.

    #27

    The Solvay Conference On Quantum Mechanics, 1927

    he 1927 Solvay Conference on Quantum Mechanics at the Institut International de Physique Solvay in Brussels, Belgium. This image features many of the greatest scientists in modern history. Some of those that you may recognize are: Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Max Planck, Niels Bohr, and Auguste Piccard

    #28

    Emmeline Pankhurst Arrested Outside Buckingham Palace, 1914

    Suffragette leader Emmeline Pankhurst being carried away from Buckingham Palace in London, England after being arrested while trying to present a petition to King George V of the United Kingdom, 21st May 1914.

    #29

    In November 1946, While Capturing A Portrait In Warsaw, A Photographer Employs A Personal Backdrop To Conceal The Remnants Of Poland's World War II Destruction

    #30

    Diogenes, An Ancient Greek Philosopher, Gained Fame For His Penchant For Satirizing People

    One memorable incident involved him positioning himself beside an archer who repeatedly missed the target, suggesting it was the safest spot to sit.

    On another occasion, Diogenes encountered a young boy, the child of a sex worker, throwing rocks at a crowd. He quietly cautioned the boy, "Be cautious, young one, don't harm your own father."

    In a different encounter, when Diogenes requested spare change from a passing man who challenged him to persuade him, Diogenes retorted, "If I possessed the power to persuade you, I'd have convinced you to take a different course."

    Diogenes held a strong aversion to Socrates and Plato, even going to the extent of disrupting their lectures by audibly eating food. When Alexander the Great inquired why he was rummaging through garbage, Diogenes replied, "I'm searching for your father's remains, but they are indistinguishable from his slaves' bones."

    Diogenes loathed the shallowness and hypocrisy of humans and favored the companionship of dogs. Though often referred to unkindly as "Diogenes the dog," he accepted it as a compliment, remarking, "I am Diogenes the dog. I seek out the kind-hearted, challenge the avaricious, and confront the dishonest."

    #31

    Bruce Lee's Workout Routine From The 1960s Reflects His Dedication To Physical Fitness And Martial Arts Training

    Squat: 3 sets of 10 reps with 95 pounds
    French Press (a triceps exercise): 4 sets of 6 reps with 64 pounds
    Incline Curls (likely an incline dumbbell curl for biceps): 4 sets of 6 reps with 35 pounds
    French Press (again, for triceps): 4 sets of 6 reps with 64 pounds
    Concentration Curl: 3 sets of 10 reps with 70-80 pounds
    Two-Handed Curl: 3 sets of 8 reps with 70-80 pounds
    Tricep Stretch: 3 sets of 8 reps
    Dumbbell Curl: 4 sets until failure with 18 pounds
    Reverse Curl: 4 sets of 6 reps with 64 pounds
    Wrist Curl: 4 sets until failure with 64 pounds
    Wrist Curl: 4 sets until failure with 10 pounds
    This workout routine demonstrates the comprehensive approach that Bruce Lee took to strengthen and condition his body for martial arts. It includes exercises for both biceps and triceps, along with exercises targeting the wrist muscles, which are crucial for martial arts techniques.

    Additionally, you shared a famous quote from Bruce Lee, which reflects his philosophy and approach to learning and growth. It underscores the importance of an open and receptive mindset, free from preconceived notions and biases, which was a fundamental part of his martial arts and life philosophy.

    #32

    In Kyoto, There Are Five Temples With Ceilings Bearing Human Blood Stains

    These ceilings were constructed using the floorboards from Fushimi Castle, where Torii Mototada and his 1,800 men bravely faced a siege by 40,000 warriors led by Toyotomi Hideyori in the year 1600. Mototada and his men valiantly defended the castle for 11 days until most of them perished in battle. Mototada chose to perform seppuku, an honorable form of suicide, rather than be captured alive.

    Mototada's conviction was rooted in the code of the warrior, as he believed it was against their principles to endure shame and avoid death, even in less significant circumstances. He resolved to make a stand within the castle and meet a swift death, rather than seeking an escape, as true loyalty and the essence of being a warrior lay in standing firm against the entire nation's forces and dying with honor.

    During my visit to Kyoto a few years ago, I discovered that the city was once a potential target for the atomic bomb, not Nagasaki or Hiroshima. Secretary of War Henry Stimson decided to remove Kyoto from the list, fearing that the wanton destruction of the city's cultural heritage might create lasting bitterness among the Japanese people, making post-war reconciliation with the United States more challenging than with the Russians. Stimson's concern was that destroying Japan's cultural heart could make the Japanese population more susceptible to adopting communism, a major fear of American foreign policymakers at the time.

    It's intriguing to contemplate the consequences if Kyoto had been bombed. Fushimi Castle and the five temples would likely have been lost to history, leaving only the stories of the events in 1600. The course of Japan's history might have taken a different path. Would Japan have aligned with Russia? Would it be the Japan we recognize today?

    The fragility of history and the near misses in its preservation often lead me to ponder various "what if" scenarios, and these reflections can keep me awake at night.

    #33

    I Am So Tired Of Waiting, Aren’t You, For The World To Become Good And Beautiful And Kind?

    Let us take a knife
    And cut the world in two –
    And see what worms are eating
    At the rind.

    -Langston Hughes

    #34

    The Final Photograph Of Hachikō Captures The Poignant Story Of A Japanese Akita Dog Celebrated For His Extraordinary Devotion To His Owner, Hidesaburō Ueno

    Following Ueno's passing, Hachikō steadfastly waited for over nine years, preserving a heartwarming legacy of loyalty.

    In 1924, Hidesaburō Ueno, a professor at Tokyo Imperial University, introduced Hachikō into his life as a beloved pet, residing together in Shibuya, Tokyo. Each day, Hachikō would faithfully await Ueno's return at Shibuya Station after his daily commute. This routine persisted until May 21, 1925, when Ueno tragically succumbed to a cerebral hemorrhage while at work. Remarkably, from that point onward until his own passing on March 8, 1935, Hachikō continued to visit Shibuya Station daily, unwaveringly anticipating Ueno's return.

    #35

    Charles Joughin, The Chief Baker Aboard The Titanic, Emerged As An Improbable Survivor Of The Tragic Sinking Of The Ship

    During the British Titanic inquiry, he faced questioning by Mr. Cotter, a part of the investigative effort to determine the circumstances of the ship's demise. Here is an excerpt from his interrogation:

    Mr. Cotter: "What did you do with the children when you put them into the boat?"
    Joughin: "Handed them into the boat or dropped them in."

    Mr. Cotter: "Threw them in?"
    Joughin: "Threw them in."

    Mr. Cotter: "And what did you do with the mother?"
    Joughin: "We wanted to throw her in, and I think she preferred to try and step in."

    Mr. Cotter: "What happened?"
    Joughin: "She missed her footing."

    Mr. Cotter: "You said that you never went into your boat. Why did you not go, seeing that you were in charge?"
    Joughin: "I would have set a bad example if I had jumped into the boat. None of the men felt inclined to get into the boat."

    Mr. Cotter: "When you found your boat had gone you said you went down below. What did you do when you went down below?"
    Joughin: "I went to my room for a drink."

    Mr. Cotter: "Drink of what?"
    Joughin: "Spirits."

    The Commissioner: "Does it very much matter what it was?"

    Mr. Cotter: "Yes, my Lord, this is very important because I am going to prove, or rather my suggestion is, that he then saved his life. I think his getting a drink had a lot to do with saving his life."

    Despite his responsibilities in assisting women and children into lifeboats, Joughin repeatedly returned to his cabin for alcoholic drinks. As the final lifeboats left, he remained composed and rode the sinking Titanic down to the icy waters.

    In general, a person under the influence of alcohol is more susceptible to freezing to death due to vasodilation, the widening of blood vessels, which causes blood to move away from vital organs toward the skin's surface, increasing the risk of hypothermia. However, the frigid temperature of the North Atlantic Sea that night, approximately -2 degrees Celsius (26.4 degrees Fahrenheit), was cold enough to constrict Joughin's blood vessels, offsetting the effects of the alcohol. Joughin reported feeling relatively calm in the water and experienced no pain.

    Joughin spent two hours in the water before managing to climb onto an overturned lifeboat. He was later rescued by a passing lifeboat. This incredible tale of survival underscores the extraordinary circumstances and individual choices that played a role in the Titanic disaster.

    #36

    In 1967, A Us Soldier Was Photographed Holding A Massive Jungle Centipede In Vietnam

    However, despite the visual impression, the centipede wasn't actually 2 feet in length as it seemed. In reality, it was closer to around 10 inches. This illusion was created by positioning the insect closer to the camera using a fishing string, a technique that manipulated perspective and made the centipede appear much larger than its actual size.

    #37

    In 1935, While Visiting London, Kayan Lahwi Women Observed A Guard Stationed At St James's Palace

    The Kayan Lahwi, alternatively referred to as Padaung, constitute a minority ethnic community residing in Myanmar and Thailand. Their unique tradition involves elongating coils as the women mature, which results in the compression of the rib cage and the displacement of the collarbone. This practice gives the illusion of an extraordinarily elongated neck.

    #38

    The Sweetheart Toaster From The 1920s Represents An Interesting Piece Of Kitchen Technology From That Era

    In the 1920s, electric toasters were in their heyday, coinciding with the introduction of pre-sliced bread, which revolutionized the world of bread consumption. By the end of that decade, the sales of electric toasters had surged from 400,000 to 1.2 million units.

    The original electric toasters of that time typically featured a heating element and a stationary wire frame to hold the slices of bread in place. While their design exuded elegance, many of these early toasters were mounted on porcelain bases, and they posed a safety risk as they could become very hot during operation.

    What sets the Sweetheart toaster apart is its innovation: users didn't need to manually flip the bread to toast the other side. This toaster had a unique mechanism that allowed for this convenience. By pressing two buttons located at the base of the toaster, users could control each side of the toaster. Depressing the buttons would swing the baskets on each side of the toaster out at a 90-degree angle, enabling users to place in the bread or remove the toast without handling it directly. Releasing the buttons allowed the baskets to swing back into place against the unit. Subsequent pushes of the buttons rotated the bread slices in the opposite direction to ensure both sides were evenly toasted.

    The Sweetheart toaster's design and functionality were a significant step forward in the evolution of electric toasters during the 1920s, making it a noteworthy relic from that era.

    #39

    Vasily Arkhipov, A Soviet Navy Officer Born In 1926 And Passed Away In 1998, Played A Pivotal Role During The Cuban Missile Crisis In 1962

    He made the crucial decision to withhold consent for launching a nuclear torpedo from the B-59 submarine, despite the captain's insistence, in response to the U.S. dropping depth charges. This incident occurred while the submarine was in international waters.

    The Soviet crew had lost communication with Moscow for several days, creating uncertainty about whether World War 3 had broken out. The captain believed war was underway on the surface and was eager to fire a nuclear torpedo. Compounding the situation, the submarine's batteries were depleting, causing the air conditioning to fail and raising the temperature to over 113°F (45°C). This led to crew members fainting due to carbon dioxide poisoning and low oxygen levels, impairing their judgment.

    According to protocol, a nuclear launch required approval from only the captain and the political officer onboard. Arkhipov, a flotilla commander, had intentionally chosen to be aboard the B-59 submarine, although flotilla commanders were not typically found on nuclear submarines. This choice allowed him to transform the two-person approval into a three-person vote. Arkhipov engaged in a heated debate with the two senior officers and, eventually, convinced them to surface and establish contact with Moscow. His determination and decision-making skills ultimately prevented a nuclear war and saved the world from catastrophe.

    #40

    If Cameras Were Available During The Early 1500s, We Might Have Captured Leonardo Da Vinci's Depiction Of The Italian Noblewoman Lisa Del Giocondo Through The Iconic Artwork Known As The Mona Lisa

    #41

    In 1928, A Figure Known As The Ice Man Could Be Seen Delivering A 25-Pound Ice Block In Houston, Texas

    his snapshot reflects a time when the ice trade was a highly profitable industry, primarily during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Ice was harvested from natural sources such as ponds and streams and then transported via railroads or ships to various destinations worldwide. An intricate network of ice wagons was responsible for the final distribution of this valuable commodity.

    The roots of this industry can be traced back to 1806 when Frederic Tudor, also known as the Ice King, initiated the ice trade in New England by shipping ice to his affluent clientele in the Caribbean. Over the years, his enterprise expanded to encompass regions like Cuba and the southern United States. Eventually, ice was being shipped to destinations as far-flung as India, Australia, China, and South America.

    At the zenith of the ice trade, this sector in the United States employed a staggering 90,000 individuals and relied on the labor of 25,000 horses. The demand for ice experienced a notable upswing during World War I. However, once the war concluded, the ice trade saw a precipitous decline due to the advent of refrigeration cooling systems. By the 1930s, modern refrigerators began to gain prevalence in households, and by the 1950s, they had become nearly ubiquitous in both the United States and Europe. This technological advancement rendered the ice trade largely obsolete.

    #42

    In December 1937, Two Soldiers Belonging To The Pontifical Swiss Guard Were Photographed In Vatican City

    The Pontifical Swiss Guard is a ceremonial and protective military unit under the jurisdiction of the Holy See, responsible for safeguarding the pope and the Apostolic Palace within Vatican City. Established in 1506 by Pope Julius II, it is one of the longest-serving military units in continuous operation.

    #43

    In 1972, You Could Buy Sandwiches In London For Various Prices

    A sandwich for 10 pence in 1972 would be equivalent to £1.69 or $2.15 when adjusted for inflation today.
    For 12 pence in 1972, you'd be looking at £2.03 or $2.59 in today's money.
    13 pence in 1972 would translate to £2.19 or $2.79 after adjusting for inflation.
    And a sandwich priced at 15 pence in 1972 would now cost approximately £2.53 or $3.23 when adjusted for inflation.
    Regarding Douglas Adams' humorous take on English sandwiches, he humorously describes the English approach to sandwiches in "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" series. In this quote, he highlights a prevailing sentiment in England that views the act of making sandwiches interesting, appealing, or enjoyable to eat as something almost sinful, typically reserved for foreigners. Instead, there's a notion that sandwiches should be dry and rubbery, and if they need preservation, it's achieved through infrequent washing.

    Furthermore, Adams suggests that the British make amends for their national sins by consuming sandwiches in pubs during Saturday lunchtimes, even though they might not be entirely clear about what those sins are and are reluctant to delve into the topic. This humorous commentary underscores the idea that, for the British, sandwiches play a peculiar role in their cultural habits.

    #44

    Smoking A Cigarette After Tennis, 1932

    #45

    Photo Of Solomon Sivils, Who Received An 18-Month Imprisonment Term And A $10 Fine Due To Bringing Alcohol Into Native American Territory In 1904

    In 1834, a law was enacted that established consequences for selling, trading, or bringing alcohol onto Native American territories. There was a special provision allowing for the requirements of U.S. military personnel serving on tribal lands.

    #46

    During The Early 20th Century, Japanese Physician And Pathologist Fukushi Masaichi Engaged In The Collection Of Tattooed Skin From Deceased Individuals

    His fascination with tattoos was initially sparked by observing how tattoo ink within the skin had a curative effect on syphilis-related skin lesions. This curiosity drove him to delve into the study of Japanese tattoo art (Irezumi) in 1926. Conducting autopsies on deceased bodies, he carefully removed the skin and conducted research to find ways to preserve it. Over the subsequent years, he amassed an archive of around 2000 pieces of tattooed "hides."
    In the early 1940s, Masaichi safeguarded a portion of his distinctive collection, which included tattooed hides as well as carefully maintained skin from external sources, within an air raid shelter. These items were shielded from the destructive impacts of World War II, enabling them to survive the bombings. As a result, these preserved skins are the sole remnants of his extensive collection today.

    #47

    The Photographs Of The Control Room Of A World War I German Submarine (Ub-110) In 1918

    A glimpse into the inner workings of these early submarines. Here's some additional context for the historical information: Warfare Procedures in World War I: At the outset of World War I, German U-boats adhered to traditional naval warfare procedures when targeting merchant ships. They would surface, signal the merchant vessel, and allow the crew to evacuate before sinking the ship. This chivalrous approach aimed to avoid unnecessary loss of life. However, it became less practical as the war intensified. Arming Merchant Vessels: In response to the U-boats' behavior, the Allied forces began arming merchant ships to defend against submarine attacks. When U-boats surfaced and demanded surrender, the crew of the merchant ships would counterattack, catching the U-boats off guard. German Retaliation: Faced with the increasing resistance of armed merchant vessels, the Germans changed their tactics. They started sinking merchant ships without warning, a controversial move that led to significant losses. U-Boat Rescue Efforts: Even as late as 1942, some U-boats continued to provide torpedoed survivors with food, water, and directions to the nearest landmass. This practice was intended to follow maritime prize rules and humane treatment of survivors. End of Prize Rules: The era of operating under prize rules ended when a U-boat flying the Red Cross flag and towing lifeboats was attacked by a U.S. bomber. To avoid destruction, the U-boat had to cast aside the survivors and dive. After this incident, the Germans abandoned prize rules and embraced unrestricted submarine warfare for the rest of the war. 

    #48

    Grotto In An Iceberg, 1911

    Geologist Thomas Griffith Taylor and Meteorologist Charles Wright photographed on the 5 January 1911 at the entrance of a grotto in the side of an iceberg with the Terra Nova ship in the background. This was a part of the British Antarctic Expedition led by Captain Robert Falcon Scott which lasted from 1910-1913.

    #49

    The Valley Of The Shadow Of Death, 1855

    The famous photograph “The valley of the shadow of death” taken on 23rd April 1855 by Roger Fenton during the Crimean War. This war was the first that was documented with photographs

    #50

    In 1620, Peter Paul Rubens Created "The Fall Of The Damned,"

    a painting that portrays a tumultuous descent of bodies plunging downward, guided by the Archangel Michael, who can be identified in the upper left corner wearing a blue tunic and a red cape, holding a shield and a weapon. Accompanying angels assist in this descent, while demons forcefully drag and torment the damned souls, subjecting them to agonizing, otherworldly suffering.

    At first glance, the painting may appear to depict sinners being cast into the underworld as a consequence of their transgressions. However, an alternative interpretation suggests that it illustrates the moment when Lucifer, the fallen angel, was banished from heaven, along with all the angels who supported him. These angels, now stripped of their wings, undergo a gradual transformation into demons and malevolent spirits, forever exiled due to their rebellious beliefs.

    In 1959, a self-proclaimed philosopher named Walter Menzl attempted to draw attention to an unpublished book he had written about utopian universal peace. To do so, he threw acid on the painting, an act he believed would generate interest in his work. His action resulted in a legal order to pay 80,000 Deutschmarks as restitution, which he was unable to fulfill, leading to a three-year prison sentence. His book remained unpublished, while the painting was successfully restored and is currently housed at the Alte Pinakothek in Munich, Germany.

    Menzl defended his actions by asserting that the acid did not directly destroy the artwork but rather served as a means to avoid the effort of physical destruction.